Archiv

Nikola Tomić: When the carrot is not sweet enough. Conditionality versus norms as modes of EU influence on Serbia’s foreign policy

Nikola Tomić
When the carrot is not sweet enough. Conditionality versus norms as modes of EU influence on Serbia’s foreign policy
(als pdf-Datei herunterladen)

Abstract
In the last two decades the EU has exercised significant influence on the whole European continent including countries in transition of Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. The countries of the Western Balkans are among the last countries to join the EU. With every enlargement the EU has shaped and revisited its approach to enlargement and the countries seeking EU membership. While the literature on European enlargement has focused on conditionality and the ‗stick and carrot‘ metaphor, there are authors that stress other modes of influence of the EU on third countries. One of these modes of influence is the normative potential of the EU. This paper will elaborate on how and if norms and conditionality fit together, identify the norms and conditions of the EU in international relations and assess the influence of the EU on countries of Western Balkans and their foreign policy decisions. The paper will focus on regional cooperation, which is both a norm in the relationships between these countries, as well as a de facto condition of EU accession. The paper will present the developments of foreign policy in Serbia, in particular related to regional cooperation and analyze the EU input in Serbia‘s foreign policy decisions. The paper concludes with the observation that conditionality as a mode of influence has limited success and is less effective than the power of norms, as illustrated by the position of Serbia towards Kosovo. For conditionality to be successful, the promised reward needs to be greater than the cost of fulfilling the conditions of the reward (the ‗carrot‘ needs to be sweet enough). In the case of Serbia and Kosovo, the current government (and the majority of Serbia‘s politicians) value preserving Kosovo within Serbia‘s borders more than EU membership, making any such conditionality ineffective. Norms on the other hand are more subtle and long-lasting due to the passive nature of influence. Proof of the effectiveness of European norms in international relations is the mere fact that Serbia has opted for peaceful regional and international political and legal means of settling the Kosovo dispute.

Zitation
Tomić, Nikola (2013): When the carrot is not sweet enough. Conditionality versus norms as modes of EU influence on Serbia’s foreign policy. In: Südosteuropäische Hefte 2 (1), S. 77–106.

Persistent Identifier (PID): http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-360944

Andreas Guidi: „Traditionen im Transit“. Deutung der lokalen Geschichte und Kategorisierungsprozesse am Beispiel von kulturpolitischen Institutionen im serbischen Sandžak

Andreas Guidi
„Traditionen im Transit“. Deutung der lokalen Geschichte und Kategorisierungsprozesse am Beispiel von kulturpolitischen Institutionen im serbischen Sandžak
(als pdf-Datei herunterladen)

Abstract
From the occupation of the Sandžak of Novi Pazar by Serbian troops, precisely one hundred years ago during the First Balkan War, this territory has undergone rash changes as to the cultural-political references adopted by the elite in order to bolster the loyalty of the local Muslim population. This article questions the content and the dynamics of the discourses of the 20th century which made a complicated juxtaposition of symbols – especially by “inventing tradition” and establishing links with other world regions – become an “identity” postulated by local institutions, mainly opposing the authorities in Belgrade. The theoretical tools used through this research help underline the role of elites in “transition” times and their use of the imaginaire to re-define the criteria of “community” according to categories based on “cultural identity”, though aiming at increasing loyalty for political purposes. Since new cultural-political actors have entered this arena in the recent years, it is worthy enquiring the process of interpretation of local history from this “national” perspective, revealing at the same time it’s controversial and less fundated features. In doing this, three periods are dealt with: the interwar Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the SFRJ after 1945 and the turbulent 1990s: each of them is properly contextualised, nonetheless it is possible to find certain analogies in the“invention“ of an appareantly coherent path towards full emancipation of the “Bošnjaks”, still to be eked out. Lastly, this work describes the self-representation of newly founded cultural institutions such as the Faculty for Islamic Studies and the Turkish Cultural Centre. The main theses of the article points at the peculiar nature of the Sandžak as a transit-territory exposed to enormous exchange and mixture between human beings and their ideas where a “national movement” without an inner centre of gravity emerged. Thus, the actual “ideological” friction with Belgrade is read as an attempt to affirm the “openness” to external influence, especially with other countries historically and economically related with the Sandžak.

Zitation
Guidi, Andreas (2012): „Traditionen im Transit“. Deutung der lokalen Geschichte und Kategorisierungsprozesse am Beispiel von kulturpolitischen Institutionen im serbischen Sandžak. In: Südosteuropäische Hefte 1 (2), S. 58–76.

Persistent Identifier (PID): http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-324622