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Andreas Guidi: „Traditionen im Transit“. Deutung der lokalen Geschichte und Kategorisierungsprozesse am Beispiel von kulturpolitischen Institutionen im serbischen Sandžak

Andreas Guidi
„Traditionen im Transit“. Deutung der lokalen Geschichte und Kategorisierungsprozesse am Beispiel von kulturpolitischen Institutionen im serbischen Sandžak
(als pdf-Datei herunterladen)

Abstract
From the occupation of the Sandžak of Novi Pazar by Serbian troops, precisely one hundred years ago during the First Balkan War, this territory has undergone rash changes as to the cultural-political references adopted by the elite in order to bolster the loyalty of the local Muslim population. This article questions the content and the dynamics of the discourses of the 20th century which made a complicated juxtaposition of symbols – especially by “inventing tradition” and establishing links with other world regions – become an “identity” postulated by local institutions, mainly opposing the authorities in Belgrade. The theoretical tools used through this research help underline the role of elites in “transition” times and their use of the imaginaire to re-define the criteria of “community” according to categories based on “cultural identity”, though aiming at increasing loyalty for political purposes. Since new cultural-political actors have entered this arena in the recent years, it is worthy enquiring the process of interpretation of local history from this “national” perspective, revealing at the same time it’s controversial and less fundated features. In doing this, three periods are dealt with: the interwar Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the SFRJ after 1945 and the turbulent 1990s: each of them is properly contextualised, nonetheless it is possible to find certain analogies in the“invention“ of an appareantly coherent path towards full emancipation of the “Bošnjaks”, still to be eked out. Lastly, this work describes the self-representation of newly founded cultural institutions such as the Faculty for Islamic Studies and the Turkish Cultural Centre. The main theses of the article points at the peculiar nature of the Sandžak as a transit-territory exposed to enormous exchange and mixture between human beings and their ideas where a “national movement” without an inner centre of gravity emerged. Thus, the actual “ideological” friction with Belgrade is read as an attempt to affirm the “openness” to external influence, especially with other countries historically and economically related with the Sandžak.

Zitation
Guidi, Andreas (2012): „Traditionen im Transit“. Deutung der lokalen Geschichte und Kategorisierungsprozesse am Beispiel von kulturpolitischen Institutionen im serbischen Sandžak. In: Südosteuropäische Hefte 1 (2), S. 58–76.

Persistent Identifier (PID): http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-324622

Jacob Venuß: Wahlsystemwandel in Südosteuropa. Zur Stabilität von Wahlsystemen im postsozialistischen Raum

Jacob Venuß
Wahlsystemwandel in Südosteuropa. Zur Stabilität von Wahlsystemen im postsozialistischen Raum
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Abstract
Electoral systems are one of the most fundamental elements in modern democratic systems. Based on observations in Western democracies since World War II they are commonly regarded as very stable institutional structures. Thus the study of electoral systems is affected by the neo-institutionalist paradigm of stability which assumes that changes in the electoral system can only be observed in “extraordinary historical situations”. But the developments in electoral systems in Central and Eastern European countries in the past 20 years reveal a very different picture. These countries went through a number of changes in their respective electoral systems in varying degrees and do not fit into the described paradigm of stability. The article1 focuses on the question why the degree of electoral system stability is in some countries higher than in others. At the center of the analysis is the investigation of the respective electoral systems of five succession states of former Yugoslavia (Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Macedonia and Montenegro) which are checked against theoretical hypotheses about the reasons for stability or respectively instability. The most similar case design methodology is applied to this analysis, which belongs to the scientific field of area studies. On the one hand the study develops and tests four hypothesis based on rational theoretical concepts of political science which understand institutional change as driven by self-interests of the political actors (parties). On the other hand it assembles empirical data of the Balkan region to generate specific regional results in regard to electoral system stability and tries to close an obvious gap in the scientific research in this field of political science. The main theoretical findings of the analysis presented in this article are that electoral system changes are tightly connected to the question of who benefits from the new electoral systems and that these changes are thusly consciously enforced by self-interest of the political actors.

Zitation
Venuß, Jacob (2012): Wahlsystemwandel in Südosteuropa. Zur Stabilität von Wahlsystemen im postsozialistischen Raum. In: Südosteuropäische Hefte 1 (2), S. 30–44.

Persistent Identifier (PID): http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-323628